Categoría publications

A liquid biopsy platform combining a high fundamental frequency QCM device with dynamic chemistry for detecting mutations in circulating DNA

Authors: A. Grammoustianou, G. Papadakis, M. Tabraue, J.J. Díaz-Mochon, R. Fernández, J.V. García, A. Arnau, E. Gizeli. AWSensors S.L., Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology- FORTH, University of Crete, Destina Genomics S.L., Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Bioingeniería – Universidad Politécnica de Valencia

Event:  5th International Conference on Bio-sensing Technology, Riva del Garda, Italy (2017)

In the past decade, the analysis of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in blood has been a major breakthrough; ctDNA has been proposed as a priceless source for cancer diagnostic, prognostic and treatment monitoring through a new methodology known as “Liquid Biopsy”. This study presents a novel diagnostic method for the acoustic detection of KRAS mutations in ctDNAs based on: (1) DNA analysis by “dynamic chemistry” that utilizes aldehyde modified nucleobases (SMART) and abasic peptide nucleic acids (DGL probes) capable for the errorfree detection of nucleic acids and their mutations; and, (2) a high fundamental frequency (100 MHz) acoustic wave microsensor (AWS HFF-QCM) that allows the accurate, inexpensive, label-free and real time monitoring of the “dynamic chemistry”. Surface-immobilized DGL probes on the AWS HFF-QCM device are used to detect ctDNAs of wild type and mutated KRAS variants. Upon hybridization of the DGL probe with its target ssDNA, a duplex is formed where biotin- tagged SMART bases can lock in front of the position under interrogation; streptavidin binding detected in a follow-up step confirms the presence of the SMART bases. The use of DGL probes in combination with an isothermal DNA amplification step RPA) have allowed the sensitive and specific recognition of single mismatches in KRAS genes in less than 1 hour. This work presents a unique and novel technology that can emerge as a promising tool in the field of cancer diagnostics.

Liquid Biopsy detection protocol

Schema for complete detection protocol:

(A) Extracted DNA containing mutant (red) and wild type DNA fragments (black) are enzymatically amplified.

(B) Denatured amplicons are hybridized on surface immobilized DGL probes. Chemical locking of a specific tagged SMART base takes place only in the appropriate position.

(C) Incorporated SMART bases are recognized by streptavidin and monitored in real-time during an acoustic measurement.

A High Fundamental Frequency QCM Immunosensor for Tuberculosis Detection

AWSensors biosensor for tuberculosis detection

 

Authors: Ángel Montoya, Carmen March, Yeison J. Montagut, Maria J. Moreno, Juan J. Manclus, Antonio Arnau, Yolanda Jiménez, Marisol Jaramillo, Paula A. Marin, Robinson A. Torres

Journal:  Current topics in Medicinal Chemistry (2017)

Background: Tuberculosis, one of the oldest diseases affecting human beings, is still considered as a world public health problem by the World Health Organization.

Method & Material: Therefore, there is a need for new and more powerful analytical methods for early illness diagnosis. With this idea in mind, the development of a High Fundamental Frequency (HFF) piezoelectric immunosensor for the sensitive detection of tuberculosis was undertaken. A 38 kDa protein secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was first selected as the target biomarker. Then, specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were obtained. Myc-31 MAb, which showed the highest affinity to the analyte, was employed to set up a reference enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a limit of detection of 14 ng mL-1 of 38 kDa antigen.

Results & Discussion: For the development of the HFF piezoelectric immunosensor, 100 MHz AWSensors quartz crystals were used as transducer elements. The gold electrode surface was functionalized by covalent immobilization of the target biomarker through mixed self-assembled monolayers (mSAM) of carboxylic alkane thiols. A competitive immunoassay based on Myc-31 MAb was integrated with the transducer as sensing bio-recognition event. Reliable assay signals were obtained using low concentrations of antigen for functionalization and MAb for the competitive immunoassay. Under optimized conditions, the HFF immunosensor calibration curve for 38 kDa determination showed a limit of detection as low as 11 ng mL-1 of the biomarker. The high detectability attained by this immunosensor, in the picomolar range, makes it a promising tool for the easy, direct and sensitive detection of the tuberculosis biomarker in biological fluids such as sputum.

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Dynamic Resolution of Ion Transfer in Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxides Revealed by Electrogravimetric Impedance

Authors: Hamza Goubaa, Freddy Escobar-Teran, Ibtissam Ressam, Wanli Gao, Abdelkrim el Kadib, Ivan T. Lucas, Mustapha Raihane, Mohammed Lahcini, Hubert Perrot, Ozlem Sel. Sorbonne Université, UPMC, Univ Paris 06, CNRS, France. Laboratoire Interfaces et Systèmes Électroquimiques; Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Laboratoire de Chimie Organométallique et Macromoléculaire Matériaux composites, Marrakech, Morocco.

Journal:  The Journal of Physical Chemistry (2017)

To accompany the search for optimal materials in electrochemical supercapacitors, appropriate characterization tools to assess key parameters of newly developed electrodes are required. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of ac-mode electrogravimetry to study in details the capacitive charge storage mechanisms in electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) thin films electrodes. The coupling of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with fast quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) complements classical electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) by capturing here the dynamics of the electroadsorption process, identifying charged moieties and detecting solvation effects. We evidenced the co-electroadsorption of two types of cationic species (fully and partially hydrated cations) in the potential range studied and the indirect intervention of free solvent molecules. Further kinetic information on electroadsorption is also obtained which leads to a full deconvolution of the global EQCM response at both gravimetric and temporal level. Through a fine analysis of the interactions of different cations of period one elements, Li+, Na+ and Kwith ERGO, we evidenced the critical role of solvation processes on the kinetics of electroadsorption, and provided an experimental proof to the phenomena that smaller ions are more tightly bound to their water molecules such that an inverse relationship exists between the dehydration energy and the ion size. Such gravimetric and dynamic subleties are unreachable with classical tools and with EQCM method alone which permits us to suggest the ac-mode electrogravimetry as a baseline diagnostic tool to explore charge transfer mechanisms at the nanoscale.

Electrochemical and viscoelastic evolution of dodecyl sulfate-doped polypyrrole films during electrochemical cycling

Authors: Wanli Gao, Ozlem Sel, Hubert Perrot

Journal:  Electrochimica Acta (2017)

The correlation between electrochemical and viscoelastic properties of electrodeposited dodecysulfatedoped polypyrrole (PPy-DS) during electrochemical cycling process was described through combining electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance (EQCM), ac-electrogravimetric characterizations and electroacoustic measurements. as the PPy-DS electrode evolves during the course of consecutive cycling in aqueous NaCI electrolyte, the film exhibits (i) an obvious ion-selective transition from cations to anions in the charge compensation process; (ii) an inferior electrochemical performance accompanied with increased stiffness (increased storaged moduli, G’); and (iii) depleted capability of ionic exchange through film/electrolyte interface. PPy-DS conducting polymer electrodes (CPEs) are of interest in energy storage and the relationship between electrochemical and viscoelastic properties during electrochemical cycling process is essential for promoting the performance of these devices. In this perspective, ac-electrogravimetry combined with electroacoustic measurements can be suggested as an alternative method to synchronously probe the electrochemical and mechanical evolution and has the potential to offer a generalized route to study aging mechanism of CPEs.

 

pH Controlled Electrochemical Deposition of Polyelectrolyte Complex Films

Authors: Kazi Sadman, Qifeng Wang, Shawn H Chen, David Efim Delgado and Kenneth R Shull. Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, US

Journal:  Langmuir, American Chemical Society (2017)

Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) films made from oppositely charged polymer chains have applications as drug delivery vehicles, separation membranes, and biocompatible coatings. Conventional layer-by-layer (LbL) techniques for polyelectrolyte coatings are low-throughput and multistep processes that are quite slow for building films on the order of micrometers. In this work, PEC films are electrochemically deposited using a rapid one-pot method yielding thick (1 μm) films within short experimental time scales (5 min). This rapid electrodeposition is achieved by exploiting the reduction of hydrogen peroxide at mild electrode potentials that avoid water electrolysis, yet trigger the pH responsive self-assembly of a PEC film composed of poly(acrylic) acid and poly (allylamine) HCl. In-situ rheology using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) quantified the shear modulus-density product of the deposited layer to be on the order of 107 Pa-g/cm3 at a frequency of 15 MHz, with a viscoelastic phase angle at this frequency of approximately 50. This electrodeposition scheme furthers the development of PEC coatings for more high-throughput applications where a fast and efficient single step approach would be desirable for obtaining coatings.

Gravimetric and dynamic deconvolution of global EQCM response of carbon nanotube based electrodes by Ac-electrogravimetry

Authors: F. Escobar-Teran, A. Arnau, J.V. García, Y. Jiménez, H. Perrot, O. Sel

Journal: Electrochemistry communications (2016)

The capacity charge storage of carbon nanotube (CNT) based electrodes was investigated by ac-electrogravimetry which couples fast quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In contact with an aqueous NaCI electrolyte, evidence was found that there are two types of cations (Na+.H2O and H+) electroadsorbed with different kinetics for cathodic potentials and the Cl– ionsfor anodic potentials together with free water molecules. The reconstruction of the total mass response from independent ac-electrogravimetry measurements agrees perfectly well with the global EQCM response. Our findings reveal the unique sensitivity of the ac-electrogravimetry to provide a fair gravimetric and dynamic deconvolution of the global EQCM responses.

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Calcium-induced calmodulin conformational change. Electrochemical evaluation

Authors: Isabel P.G. Fernandes, Ana Maria Oliveira-Brett. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal.

Journal: Bioelectrochemistry (2016)

Calmodulin (CaM) is an essential protein present in all eukaryote cells, ranging from vertebrates to unicellular organisms. CaM is the most important Ca2+ signalling protein, composed of two domains,  N- and C-terminal domains, linked by a flexible central α – helix, and is responsible for the regulation of numerous calcium-mediated signalling pathways. Four calcium ions bind to CaM, changing its conformation and determining how it recognizes and regulates its cellular targets. The oxidation mechanism of native and denatured CaM, at a glassy carbon electrode, was investigated using differential pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Native and denatured CaM presented only one oxidation peak, related to the tyrosine amino acid residue oxidation. Calcium-induced calmodulin conformational change and the influence of Ca2+ concentration on the electrochemical behaviour of CaM were evaluated, and significant differences, in the tyrosine amino acid residue peak potential and current, in the absence and in the presence of calcium ions, were observed. Gravimetric measurements were performed with a graphite coated piezoelectric quartz crystal with adsorbed CaM and calcium aggregation by CaM was demonstrated.

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HFF-QCM immunosensor for fast and sensitive detection of DDT in honey

Summary

The control of chemical residues is essential in honey’s marketing to ensure consumer safety. Equipments available in the market reach the required limit of detection (LOD) (e.g. Liquid Cromatography- HPLC) but are not suitable for in-situ implantation in honey packaging industry. The reasons are:

  • High qualified staff required
  • High cost
  • Time-consuming

Other approaches available in the market, although faster and without the need of qualified staff, do not reach the required LODs. Piezoelectric immunosensors based on High Fundamental Frequency Quartz Crystal Microbalance (HFF-QCM) combined with an antigen-antibody recognition process, are alternative or complementary technologies suitable for chemical residues control in food.

The analytical performance of AWS-A20 and AWS-F20 platforms (based on HFF-QCM technology) has been tested for the detection of pesticide residues (DDT) in honey.

AWS platforms lead to the following benefits:

  • Lower cost
  • Less sample/reagent consumption
  • Label-free, direct and real time transduction

DDT standard curves performed in laboratory buffer provided:

  • Sensitivity (estimated as the I50 value): 0.62 µg/L
  • LOD in the 0.05 – 0.1 µg/L range

Remarks

  • A HFF-QCM immunosensors for DDT insecticide has been developed
  • Efficient biosensing interfaces were achieved by covalent functionalization of the sensor gold electrodes with mixed alkane-thiol self-assembled monolayers (mSAMs)
  • High-sensitivity monoclonal antibodies were used as the bio-recognition element of the target analyte in a competitive immunoassay format.
  • The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) and the working range (WR) of the developed HFF-QCM immunosensor for DDT are in the same order of magnitude as those previously reported for ELISA and SPR immunosensor.

 

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High-frequency phase shift measurements greatly enhances the sensitivity of QCM immunosensors

Authors: C. March, J.V. García, A. Sánchez, A. Arnau, Y. Jiménez, P. García, J.J. Manclús, A. Montoya.

Journal: Biosensors & Bioelectronics (2015)

In spite of being widely used for in liquid biosensing applications, sensitivity improvement of conventional (5-20MHz) quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors remains an unsolved challenging task. With the help of a new electronic characterization approach based on phase change measurements at a constant fixed frequency, a highly sensitive and versatile high fundamental frequency (HFF) QCM immunosensor has successfully been developed and tested for its use in pesticide (carbaryl and thiabendazole) analysis. The analytical performance of several immunosensors was compared in competitive immunoassays taking carbaryl insecticide as the model analyte. The highest sensitivity was exhibited by the 100 MHz HFF-QCM carbaryl immunosensor. When results were compared with those reported for 9 MHz QCM, analytical parameters clearly showed an improvement of one order of magnitude for sensitivity (estimated as the I50value) and two orders of magnitude for the limit of detection (LOD): 30 μg l−1 vs 0.66 μg L−1I50 value and 11 μg L−1 vs 0.14 μg L−1 LOD, for 9 and 100 MHz, respectively. For the fungicide thiabendazole, I50 value was roughly the same as that previously reported for SPR under the same biochemical conditions, whereas LOD improved by a factor of 2. The analytical performance achieved by high frequency QCM immunosensors surpassed those of conventional QCM and SPR, closely approaching the most sensitive ELISAs. The developed 100 MHz QCM immunosensor strongly improves sensitivity in biosensing, and therefore can be considered as a very promising new analytical tool for in liquid applications where highly sensitive detection is required.

 

Further sensitivity enhancement of HFF-QCM immunosensors for pesticides

Authors: C. March, J.V. García, R. Fernández, Y.Jiménez, A. Arnau. A.Montoya

Event: 4th International Conference on Biosensing Technology, Lisbon (2015)

Recently, High Fundamental Frequency Quartz Crystal Microbalance (HFF-QCM) immunosensors have succesfully been developed. Therefore, sensitivity of QCM biosensors is no longer a drawback. Taking advantage of this previous work, we have developed a renewed highly sensitive HFF piezoelectric immunosensor using carbaryl insecticide as a model analyte for pesticide detection. To this purpose, 100 MHz quartz crystal sensors were used as the transducer elements of the biosensor and a monoclonal antibody-based competitive immunoassay was integrated as the sensing specific bio-recognition event. The biosensing interface was improved by employing mixed self-assembled monolayers (mSAMs) of alkane thiols as intermediate layers for surface functionalization. This approach allowed the covalent attachment of the assay conjugate (20.0 µg mL-¹ of BSA-CNH conjugate) onto the gold electrode surface in a more orderly and stable way than with simple SAMs. A very low concentration (1.0 µg mL-¹) of LIB-CNH45 monoclonal antibody was used for the competitive immunoassays. All immunosensor assays were performed in the AWS-A10 test platform from AWSensors. In terms of analytical performance, the new carbaryl HFF-QCM immunosensor showed higher sensitivity than the previously developed one, with analytical parameters very close to those of the most sensitive reported ELISA for carbaryl.

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