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Dynamic Resolution of Ion Transfer in Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxides Revealed by Electrogravimetric Impedance

Authors: Hamza Goubaa, Freddy Escobar-Teran, Ibtissam Ressam, Wanli Gao, Abdelkrim el Kadib, Ivan T. Lucas, Mustapha Raihane, Mohammed Lahcini, Hubert Perrot, Ozlem Sel. Sorbonne Université, UPMC, Univ Paris 06, CNRS, France. Laboratoire Interfaces et Systèmes Électroquimiques; Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Laboratoire de Chimie Organométallique et Macromoléculaire Matériaux composites, Marrakech, Morocco.

Journal:  The Journal of Physical Chemistry (2017)

To accompany the search for optimal materials in electrochemical supercapacitors, appropriate characterization tools to assess key parameters of newly developed electrodes are required. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of ac-mode electrogravimetry to study in details the capacitive charge storage mechanisms in electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) thin films electrodes. The coupling of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with fast quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) complements classical electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) by capturing here the dynamics of the electroadsorption process, identifying charged moieties and detecting solvation effects. We evidenced the co-electroadsorption of two types of cationic species (fully and partially hydrated cations) in the potential range studied and the indirect intervention of free solvent molecules. Further kinetic information on electroadsorption is also obtained which leads to a full deconvolution of the global EQCM response at both gravimetric and temporal level. Through a fine analysis of the interactions of different cations of period one elements, Li+, Na+ and Kwith ERGO, we evidenced the critical role of solvation processes on the kinetics of electroadsorption, and provided an experimental proof to the phenomena that smaller ions are more tightly bound to their water molecules such that an inverse relationship exists between the dehydration energy and the ion size. Such gravimetric and dynamic subleties are unreachable with classical tools and with EQCM method alone which permits us to suggest the ac-mode electrogravimetry as a baseline diagnostic tool to explore charge transfer mechanisms at the nanoscale.

Electrochemical and viscoelastic evolution of dodecyl sulfate-doped polypyrrole films during electrochemical cycling

Authors: Wanli Gao, Ozlem Sel, Hubert Perrot

Journal:  Electrochimica Acta (2017)

The correlation between electrochemical and viscoelastic properties of electrodeposited dodecysulfatedoped polypyrrole (PPy-DS) during electrochemical cycling process was described through combining electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance (EQCM), ac-electrogravimetric characterizations and electroacoustic measurements. as the PPy-DS electrode evolves during the course of consecutive cycling in aqueous NaCI electrolyte, the film exhibits (i) an obvious ion-selective transition from cations to anions in the charge compensation process; (ii) an inferior electrochemical performance accompanied with increased stiffness (increased storaged moduli, G’); and (iii) depleted capability of ionic exchange through film/electrolyte interface. PPy-DS conducting polymer electrodes (CPEs) are of interest in energy storage and the relationship between electrochemical and viscoelastic properties during electrochemical cycling process is essential for promoting the performance of these devices. In this perspective, ac-electrogravimetry combined with electroacoustic measurements can be suggested as an alternative method to synchronously probe the electrochemical and mechanical evolution and has the potential to offer a generalized route to study aging mechanism of CPEs.

 

Gravimetric and dynamic deconvolution of global EQCM response of carbon nanotube based electrodes by Ac-electrogravimetry

Authors: F. Escobar-Teran, A. Arnau, J.V. García, Y. Jiménez, H. Perrot, O. Sel

Journal: Electrochemistry communications (2016)

The capacity charge storage of carbon nanotube (CNT) based electrodes was investigated by ac-electrogravimetry which couples fast quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In contact with an aqueous NaCI electrolyte, evidence was found that there are two types of cations (Na+.H2O and H+) electroadsorbed with different kinetics for cathodic potentials and the Cl– ionsfor anodic potentials together with free water molecules. The reconstruction of the total mass response from independent ac-electrogravimetry measurements agrees perfectly well with the global EQCM response. Our findings reveal the unique sensitivity of the ac-electrogravimetry to provide a fair gravimetric and dynamic deconvolution of the global EQCM responses.

You may read the full paper here